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Rig Veda - The Book of Mantra

Rig Veda

The Rig Veda is the world's oldest and largest religious texts consisting of just over one thousand Hymns, containing over ten thousand verses divided into ten books. These Sacred Hymns are usually dated to the late Bronze Age, but many of these Hymns may actually be considerably older. The name Rig Veda means Praise (Rig) Knowledge (Veda), Veda is an ancient Indo-European root word that in many modern Indo-European Languages still means knowledge of a sacred nature. The Rig Veda is written in an archaic form of Sanskrit and is a foundation document in the studies of ancient Indo-European languages.

Traditionally the Rig Veda was hand written with ink, on Birch bark sheets that are then bound with wooden covers painted red. The Birch tree is not found on the plains of India and the Birch bark is imported from Kashmir and the Himalayan mountains. Birch trees are well known to be symbiotic with Amanita Muscaria and explain the link of this Holy Book made of Birch bark and Amanita Muscaria as the God Soma.

The drinkable, Immortal, living God, Soma, is mentioned in almost every one of the thousand Hymns as the preferred drink of both Gods and men. There are one hundred and fourteen Hymns specifically about Soma in book nine of the Rig Veda plus a few Soma hymns scattered through the other books of the Rig Veda.

These Sacred Hymns were composed by Soma intoxicated "Seers and Sages" living very intimately with nature and are rich in naturalistic poetic imagery and animal metaphors and also contain a multitude of names that specifically refer to the God Soma. Many of these Soma hymns ring with ecstatic praise of the Soma plant/god/drink. Some of these Hymns poetically describe the mountainous natural habitat and brilliant Red or Gold appearance of the Soma plant. Other Hymns describe the processing sequence of the Soma plant into the Soma drink in the Soma sacrifice ceremony. A few Hymns also contain clear references to healings and increased life spans of Soma users.

The secret of Magic cups or what we would call the Holy Grail is found scattered through the Hymns of book nine. The Seers and Sages that composed this book were experts on the Soma plant/drink/god and loudly proclaim the secret of Soma's immortality, but to understand what they are saying, you have to know that Amanita Muscaria is the real Soma plant and that it is capable of being completely dried, rehydrated, pounded between stones, and turned into the gods own beloved juice, every drop of this Ambrosia can resurrect, and create a magic cup or larger magic vessel simply by a terra cotta or wooden cup being used to hold Soma. Only, with this knowledge can you begin to understand what these Sacred Hymns are really saying regarding Soma the "Immortal God".


The Rigveda Samhita is the oldest significant extant Indian text. It is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten mandalas . The hymns are dedicated to Rig Vedic deities.


Rigveda means the Veda of Adoration and mostly contains verses adoring or adulating deities. But it also dealt with other subjects, like the procedure of wedding, the folly of gambling. About two-thirds of Rigveda is about the gods Agni (Fire) and Indra (Ruler of the gods). Other Rigvedic gods include Rudra, the two Ashvins,Savitar and Surya, Varuna, the Maruts and the Ribhus. There are references to a divine creeper, the Soma, whose juice was an energizer. Some animals like horses, some rivers, and even some implements (like mortar and pestle) were deified. Rigveda contains a sense of intimate communion between Nature and the Rishis or visionaries. According to some, the concerns of Rigveda are those of simple, nomadic, pastoral Aryans. According to others, the people in the times of the Rigveda had a settled home, definite mode of life, developed social customs, political organizations, and even arts and amusements. Rigveda is the oldest, largest and most important of the Vedas, containing ten thousand verses forming 1017 poems in 20 groups.


The Rig Veda is the oldest of the Vedas. All the other Vedas are based upon it and consist to a large degree of various hymns from it. It consists of a thousand such hymns of different seers, each hymn averaging around ten verses. The Rig Veda is the oldest book in Sanskrit or any Indo-European language. Its date is debatable. Many great Yogis and scholars who have understood the astronomical references in the hymns, date the Rig Veda as before 4000 B.C., perhaps as early as 12,000. Modern western scholars tend to date it around 1500 B.C., though recent archeological finds in India (like Dwaraka) now appear to require a much earlier date. While the term Vedic is often given to any layer of the Vedic teachings including the Bhagavad Gita, technically it applies primarily to the Rig Veda.  

The Rig Veda is the book of Mantra. It contains the oldest form of all the Sanskrit mantras. It is built around a science of sound which comprehends the meaning and power of each letter. Most aspects of Vedic science like the practice of yoga, meditation, mantra and Ayurveda can be found in the Rig Veda and still use many terms that come from it.

While originally several different versions or rescensions of the Rig Veda were said to exist, only one remains. Its form has been structured in several different ways to guarantee its authenticity and proper preservation through time.


Rig-Veda Book 1 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)
Rig-Veda, Book 2 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)
Rig-Veda, Book 3 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)
Rig-Veda, Book 4 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)
Rig-Veda, Book 5 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)
Rig-Veda, Book 6 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)
Rig-Veda, Book 7 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)
Rig-Veda, Book 8 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)
Rig-Veda, Book 9 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)
Rig-Veda, Book 10 (read full chapter in sanskrit ----or---- understand this book in english)



Rig Veda PDF File ( Sanskrit Book are divided in parts )

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  • Mandala 1 comprises 191 hymns. Hymn 1.1 is addressed to Agni , and his name is the first word of the Rigveda . The remaining hymns are mainly addressed to Agni and Indra , as well as Varuna, Mitra, the Ashvins, the Maruts, Usas, Surya, Rbhus, Rudra, Vayu, Brhaspati, Visnu, Heaven and Earth, and all the Gods.
  • Mandala 2 comprises 43 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra . It is chiefly attributed to the Rishi g?tsamada saunahotra .
  • Mandala 3 comprises 62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra and the Vishvedevas. The verse 3.62.10 has great importance in Hinduism as the Gayatri Mantra . Most hymns in this book are attributed to visvamitra gathina ? .
  • Mandala 4 comprises 58 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra as well as the Rbhus, Ashvins, Brhaspati, Vayu, Usas, etc. Most hymns in this book are attributed to vamadeva gautama .
  • Mandala 5 comprises 87 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra , the Visvedevas ("all the gods'), the Maruts , the twin-deity Mitra-Varuna and the Asvins . Two hymns each are dedicated to Ushas (the dawn) and to Savitr . Most hymns in this book are attributed to the atri clan.
  • Mandala 6 comprises 75 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra , all the gods, Pusan, Ashvin, Usas, etc. Most hymns in this book are attributed to the barhaspatya family of Angirasas .
  • Mandala 7 comprises 104 hymns, to Agni , Indra , the Visvadevas , the Maruts , Mitra-Varuna , the Asvins , Ushas , Indra-Varuna , Varuna , Vayu (the wind), two each to Sarasvati (ancient river/goddess of learning) and Vishnu , and to others. Most hymns in this book are attributed to vasi??ha maitravaru?i .
  • Mandala 8 comprises 103 hymns to various gods. Hymns 8.49 to 8.59 are the apocryphal valakhilya . Hymns 1-48 and 60-66 are attributed to the ka?va clan, the rest to other (Angirasa) poets.
  • Mandala 9 comprises 114 hymns, entirely devoted to Soma Pavamana , the cleansing of the sacred potion of the Vedic religion.
  • Mandala 10 comprises additional 191 hymns, frequently in later language, addressed to Agni , Indra and various other deities. It contains the Nadistuti sukta which is in praise of rivers and is important for the reconstruction of the geography of the Vedic civilization and the Purusha sukta which has great significance in Hindu social tradition. It also contains the Nasadiya sukta (10.129), probably the most celebrated hymn in the west, which deals with creation. The marriage hymns (10.85) and the death hymns (10.10-18) still are of great importance in the performance of the corresponding Grhya rituals.

Dating and historical context

The Rigveda's core is accepted to date to the late Bronze Age, making it one of the few examples with an unbroken tradition. Its composition is usually dated to roughly between 1700–1100 BC. The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (s.v. Indo-Iranian languages, p. 306) gives 1500–1000 BC. Being composed in an early Indo-Aryan language, the hymns must post-date the Indo-Iranian separation, dated to roughly 2000 BC. A reasonable date close to that of the composition of the core of the Rigveda is that of the Indo-Aryan Mitanni documents of c. 1400 BC. Other evidence also points to a composition close to 1400 BC
The Rigveda is far more archaic than any other Indo-Aryan text. For this reason, it was in the center of attention of western scholarship from the times of Max Müller and Rudolf Roth onwards. The Rigveda records an early stage of Vedic religion. There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities with the early Iranian Avesta, deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times, often associated with the early Andronovo culture (or rather, the Sintashta culture within the early Andronovo horizon) of ca. 2000 BC.
The text in the following centuries underwent pronunciation revisions and standardization (samhitapatha, padapatha). This redaction would have been completed around the 6th century BC. Exact dates are not established, but they fall within the pre-Buddhist period (500, or rather 400 BC).
Writing appears in India around the 3rd century BC in the form of the Brahmi script, but texts of the length of the Rigveda were likely not written down until much later. While written manuscripts were used for teaching in medieval times, they were written on birch bark or palm leaves, which decompose fairly quickly in the tropical climate, until the advent of the printing press from the 16th[dubious – discuss] century CE. Some Rigveda commentaries may date from the second half of the first millennium CE. The hymns were thus preserved by oral tradition for up to a millennium from the time of their composition until the redaction of the Rigveda, and the entire Rigveda was preserved in shakhas for another 2,500 years from the time of its redaction until the editio princeps by Rosen, Aufrecht and Max Müller.
After their composition, the texts were preserved and codified by an extensive body of Vedic priesthood as the central philosophy of the Iron Age Vedic civilization. The Brahma Purana and the Vayu Purana name one Vidagdha as the author of the Padapatha. The Rk-pratishakhya names Sthavira Shakalya of the Aitareya Aranyaka as its author.
The Rigveda describes a mobile, semi-nomadic culture, with horse-drawn chariots, oxen-drawn wagons, and metal (bronze) weapons. The geography described is consistent with that of the Greater Punjab: Rivers flow north to south, the mountains are relatively remote but still visible and reachable (Soma is a plant found in the high mountains, and it has to be purchased from tribal people). Nevertheless, the hymns were certainly composed over a long period, with the oldest (not preserved) elements possibly reaching back to times close to the split of Proto-Indo-Iranian (around 2000 BC) Thus there was some debate over whether the boasts of the destruction of stone forts by the Vedic Aryans and particularly by Indra refer to cities of the Indus Valley civilization or whether they rather hark back to clashes between the early Indo-Aryans with the BMAC in what is now northern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan (separated from the upper Indus by the Hindu Kush mountain range, and some 400 km distant).
While it is highly likely that the bulk of the Rigvedic hymns were composed in the Punjab, even if based on earlier poetic traditions, there is no mention of either tigers or rice in the Rigveda (as opposed to the later Vedas), suggesting that Vedic culture only penetrated into the plains of India after its completion. Similarly, there is no mention of iron as the term ayas occurring in the Rig Veda refers to useful metal in general. The "black metal" (kṛṣṇa ayas) is first mentioned in the post-Rigvedic texts (Atharvaveda etc.). The Iron Age in northern India begins in the 10th century in the Greater Punjab. There is a widely accepted timeframe for the initial codification of the Rigveda by compiling the hymns very late in the Rigvedic or rather in the early post-Rigvedic period, including the arrangement of the individual hymns in ten books, coeval with the composition of the younger Veda Samhitas. This time coincides with the early Kuru kingdom, shifting the center of Vedic culture east from the Punjab into what is now Uttar Pradesh. The fixing of the samhitapatha (by keeping Sandhi) intact and of the padapatha (by dissolving Sandhi out of the earlier metrical text), occurred during the later Brahmana period.
Some of the names of gods and goddesses found in the Rigveda are found amongst other belief systems based on Proto-Indo-European religion, while words used share common roots with words from other Indo-European languages.
The horse (ashva), cattle, sheep and goat play an important role in the Rigveda. There are also references to the elephant (Hastin, Varana), camel (Ustra, especially in Mandala 8), ass (khara, rasabha), buffalo (Mahisa), wolf, hyena, lion (Simha), mountain goat (sarabha) and to the gaur in the Rigveda. The peafowl (mayura), the goose (hamsa) and the chakravaka (Anas casarca) are some birds mentioned in the Rigveda.


Rig Veda

The hymns of the Rig Veda are considered the oldest and most important of the Vedas, having been composed between 1500 BC and the time of the great Bharata war about 900 BC. More than a thousand hymns are organized into ten mandalas or circles of which the second through the seventh are the oldest and the tenth is the most recent. The Hindu tradition is that even the Vedas were gradually reduced from much more extensive and ancient divine revelations but were perverted in the recent dark age of Kaliyuga. As the only writings from this ancient period of India they are considered the best source of knowledge we have, but the ethical doctrines seem to have improved from the ancient hymns to the mystical Upanishads.
Essentially the Rig Veda is dominated by hymns praising the Aryan gods for giving them victories and wealth plundered from the local Dasas through warfare. The Aryans apparently used their advances in weaponry and skill in fighting to conquer the agricultural and tribal peoples of the fading Harappan culture. Numerous hymns refer to the use of horses and chariots with spokes which must have given their warriors a tremendous advantage. Spears, bows, arrows, and iron weapons are also mentioned. As a nomadic and pastoral culture glorifying war they established a new social structure of patriarchal families dominated by warriors and, eventually with the power of the Vedas themselves, by priests also.
Generally the hymns of the Rig Veda praise the gods and ask them for worldly benefits such as wealth, health, long life, protection, and victory over the Dasa peoples.

He, self-reliant, mighty and triumphant,
brought low the dear head of the wicked Dasas.
Indra the Vritra-slayer, Fort-destroyer,
scattered the Dasa hosts who dwelt in darkness.
For men hath he created earth and waters,
and ever helped the prayer of him who worships.
To him in might the Gods have ever yielded,
to Indra in the tumult of battle.
When in his arms they laid the bolt,
he slaughtered the Dasyus
and cast down their forts of iron.

Rigveda is a Veda in form of Sukti's , which mean 'beautiful statements' . A collection of very beautifully composed incantations itself is a Sukta. The Sukta is also synonymous to Richas. 'Rit' means - an incantation that contains praises and Veda means knowledge. The knowledge of the Richas or Suktas itself is the literal meaning of Rigveda.
The Rigveda Richas comprises mainly of the praises of God. Other than this it also has incantations containing thoughts which are evolved by the sages through their minute observation, contemplation and analysis. Every element of nature was an issue to contemplate upon for the sages. In this process they have randomly even spoken about the mysteries of the universe, which are not only worth reading but also for practical usage.
Rigveda is the oldest Veda . It comprises of 10 Mandals, 102 Suktas and containing 10,552 mantras . These mantras are filed with good thoughts and they have the ability to inspire us greatly. The ultimate aim of all these mantras is to purify the human mind through knowledge. Darkness is symbol of lack of knowledge or illusionary living, which makes us devoid of justness and sagacity.
The Rigveda is divided into 2 parts-
(i) Mandal, Anuvak and Sukta
(ii) Ashtak, Adhgaya and Sukta
According to the first division, the Rigveda consist of 10 Mandalas. There are Suktas that comprise the Mandalas. In every Sukta there are mantras or Richas. The quantity of Suktas is 1017 and the other additional Suktas account to 11. In this way, the total number is unequal. There seem to be maximum Suktas in the 1st and 10th Mandala and there are very few Suktas in the 2nd Mandala.
The following tables show the no. of Suktas and mantras in every Mandala
Mandala Sukta Number of Mantras
Mandala Sukta Number of Mantras
1 191 2006
2 43 429
3 62 617s
4 58 589
5 87 727
6 75 765
7 104 841
8 103 1716
9 114 1108
10 191 1754
10 1028 10,552


Inclusively in 10 Mandalas there are 1028 Suktas which in turn comprise of 10,552 mantras.
The Brahmanas stand second to the Vedas. The ultimate aim of these books is procedures of performing Yagya and rituals. The Brahmanas are divided into 3 parts.
(i) Brahmana,
(ii) Aranyaka,
(iii) Upanishad
There are 2 Rigveda Brahmin texts i.e. Kausheetki and Aitereya . These 2 texts share a very intimate relation. In both these texts critical appreciation is done of the same subject and the meaning of the mantras is surprisingly contradictory. These Brahmana speak about the Soma and Rajasuya Yagya .
A big portion of the Upanishads seems to have been taken in the Aranyaka. The Aitereya and Kausheetki are the 2 Aranyakas of the Rigveda.
There are 5 texts of the Aitereya and each of these is known as Aranyaka . The 2nd and 3rd are independent Upanishads. In the 2nd half of the last 4 paragraphs are counted as Vedanta texts that is why they are referred to Aitereya Upanishads. There are 3 parts of the Kausheetki Aranyaka. The 2 parts of this Aranyaka are filled with rituals. The 3rd part is referred to as Kausheetki Upanishad .



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