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HINDUISM MYTHOLOGY
 
 

Ramayana ( Incarnation of Lord Rama )

Ramayana

Ramayan Period - By hindu mythology text belongs to treta yuga. Treta yuga period are back us to date near to 2 million ( 17 - 20 lakh) year back from today. (to understand yuga period time please refer to yuga section.)

 

Start Your Ramayan Journey.

 

The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon considered to be itihasa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India, the other being the Mahabharata. It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king. The Ramayana consists of 24,000 verses in seven books and 500 cantos (sargas) and tells the story of Rama (an avatar of the Hindu preserver-God Vishnu), whose wife Sita is abducted by the king of Sri Lanka, Ravana. Thematically, the Ramayana explores human values and the concept of dharma. Like the Mahabharata, the Ramayana is not just a story: it presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages (Vedas) in narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and devotional elements. The characters Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanuman and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of India, Nepal, and many South-East Asian countries such as Thailand and Indonesia. There are other versions of the Ramayana, notably the Ramavataram in Tamil, Buddhist (Dasaratha Jataka No. 461) and Jain adaptations, and also Cambodian, Indonesian, Philippine, Thai, Lao, Burmese and Malay versions of the tale.

1.  Ramayan Epic Start
2.  SAGE VISWAMITRA
3.  TRISANKU
4.  RAMA LEAVES HOME
5.  RAMA SLAYS THE MONSTERS
6.  SITA
7.  BHAGIRATHA AND THE STORY OF GANGA
8.  AHALYA
9.  THE DIVINE MARRIAGE OF RAMA AND SITA
10.  PARASURAMA HUMBLED
11.  FESTIVE PREPARATIONS
12.  MANTHARA'S EVIL COUNSEL
13.  KAIKEYI SUCCUMBS
14.  WIFE OR DEMON?
15.  BEHOLD A WONDER!
16.  STORM AND CALM
17.  SITA'S RESOLVE
18.  TO THE FOREST
19.  ALONE BY THEMSELVES
20.  CHITRAKUTA
21.  A MOTHER'S GRIEF
22.  IDLE SPORT AND TERRIBLE RESULT
23.  LAST MOMENTS OF DASARATHA
24.  BHARATA ARRIVES
25.  INTRIGUE WASTED
26.  BHARATA SUSPECTED
27.  THE BROTHERS MEET
28.  BHARATA BECOMES RAMA'S DEPUTY
29.  VIRADHA'S END
30.  TEN YEARS PASS
31.  THE SURPANAKHA EPISODE
32.  KAMBAN'S SURPANAKHA
33.  KHARA AND HIS ARMY LIQUIDATED
34.  THE PATH OF RUIN
35.  THE GOLDEN STAG
36.  THE GOOD BIRD JATAYU
37.  CLOSELY GUARDED
38.  RAMA DISCONSOLATE
39.  A SECOND FATHER DIES
40.  LEFT EYELIDS THROB
41.  HE SEES HER JEWELS
42.  SUGRIVA'S DOUBTS CLEARED
43.  THE SLAYING OF VALI
44.  TARA'S GRIEF
45.  ANGER AND RECONCILIATION
46.  THE SEARCH BEGINS
47.  SON OF VAYU
48.  THE SEARCH IN LANKA
49.  SITA IN THE ASOKA PARK
50.  RAVANA'S SOLICITATION
51.  FIRST AMONG THE ASTUTE
52.  SITA COMFORTED
53.  SITA AND HANUMAN
54.  INVITING BATTLE
55.  THE TERRIBLE ENVOY
56.  HANUMAN BOUND
57.  LANKA IN FLAMES
58.  A CARNIVAL
59.  THE TIDINGS CONVEYED
60.  THE ARMY MOVES FORWARD
61.  ANXIETY IN LANKA
62.  RAVANA CALLS A COUNCIL AGAIN
63.  VIBHISHANA
64.  THE VANARA'S DOUBT
65.  THE DOCTRINE OF SURRENDER
66.  THE GREAT CAUSEWAY
67.  THE BATTLE BEGINS
68.  SITA'S JOY
69.  SERPENT DARTS
70.  RAVANA'S DEFEAT
71.  THE GIANT IS ROUSED
72.  IS THIS NARAYANA HIMSELF?
73.  THE DEATH OF INDRAJIT
74.  END OF RAVANA
75.  THE END

 

The 7 Kandas or Books of Ramayan

The Epic is traditionally divided into several major kandas or books, that deal chronologically with the major events in the life of Rama—Bala kandas, Ayodhya kandas, Aranya kandas, Kishkindha kandas, Sundara kandas, Yuddha kandas, and Uttara kandas.

The division into 7 kandas , or books, is as follows:

Kanda/Book Title Contents
1 Bala kanda (book of childhood) The origins and childhood of Rama , born to King Dasharatha of Ayodhya and destined to fight demons. Sita 's swayamvara and subsequent wedding to Rama.
2 The preparations for Rama's coronation in the city of Ayodhya, his exile into the forest, and the regency of Bharata.
3 Ara?ya kanda (book of the forest) The forest life of Rama with Sita and Lakshmana , his constant companion. The kidnapping of Sita by the demon king Ravana .
4 Kishkindha kanda (book of the monkey kingdom)
Rama meets Hanuman and helps destroy the monkey people's king, Vali , making Vali's younger brother, Sugriva , king of Kishkindha instead.
5 Sundara kanda (book of beauty)
Detailed accounts of Hanuman 's adventures, including his meeting with Sita. Traditionally read first when reading the Ramayana, this book's name derives from the fond name given Hanuman by his mother.
6 Yuddha kanda (book of war) also known as Lanka Kanda
The battle in Lanka between the monkey and the demon armies of Rama and Ravana, respectively. After Ravana is defeated, Sita undergoes the test of fire, completes exile with Rama, and they return to Ayodhya to reign over the Ideal State.
7 Uttara kanda (last book)
Rumors of impurity lead to Sita's banishment, during which she gives birth to and raises Lava and Kusha . Rama and Sita reconcile. The twin boys later ascend the throne of Ayodhya, after which Rama departs from the world.

 

 

Ramayana Characters

  • Rama is one of the protagonists of the tale. Portrayed as the seventh avatar of the God Vishnu , he is the eldest and favorite son of the King of Ayodhya, Dasharatha , and his Queen Kausalya . He is portrayed as the epitome of virtue. Dasharatha is forced by Kaikeyi , one of his wives, to command Rama to relinquish his right to the throne for fourteen years and go into exile.
  • Sita is one of the protagonists and the beloved wife of Rama and the daughter of king Janaka. Rama went to Janakpurdham, current city of Janakpur, Nepal, and got a chance to marry her by lifting a heavy Bow in a competition organized by King Janaka. The competition was to find the most suitable husband for Sita and many princes from different states competed to win her. Sita is the avatar of Goddess Lakshmi , the consort of Vishnu. Sita is portrayed as the epitome of female purity and virtue. She follows her husband into exile and is abducted by Ravana. She is imprisoned on the island of Lanka until Rama rescues her by defeating the demon king Ravana. Later, she gives birth to Lava and Kusha , the heirs of Rama.
  • Hanuman is the tritagonist and a vanara belonging to the kingdom of Kishkindha. He is portrayed as the eleventh avatar of God Shiva (He is also called Rudra) and an ideal bhakta of Rama. He is born as the son of Kesari, a vanara king, and the Goddess Anjana. He plays an important part in locating Sita and in the ensuing battle. He is believed to live until our modern world.
  • Lakshmana , the younger brother of Rama, who chose to go into exile with him. He is the son of King Dasaratha and Queen Sumitra, and twin of Shatrughna. Lakshmana is portrayed as an avatar of the Shesha , the naga associated with the God Vishnu. He spends his time protecting Sita and Rama during which he fought the demoness Surpanakha . He is forced to leave Sita, who was deceived by the demon Maricha into believing that Rama was in trouble. Sita is abducted by Ravana upon him leaving her. He was married to Sita's younger sister Urmila .
  • Ravana , a rakshasa , is the king of Lanka. After performing severe penance for ten thousand years he received a boon from the creator-God Brahma : he could henceforth not be killed by Gods, demons, or spirits. He is portrayed as a powerful demon king who disturbs the penances of Rishis . Vishnu incarnates as the human Rama to defeat him, thus circumventing the boon given by Brahma.
  • Jatayu , the son of Aru?a and nephew of Garuda . A demi-god who has the form of a eagle that tries to rescue Sita from Ravana. Jatayu fought valiantly with Ravana, but as Jatayu was very old, Ravana soon got the better of him. As Rama and Lakshmana chanced upon the stricken and dying Jatayu in their search for Sita, he informs them the direction in which Ravana had gone.
  • Dasharatha is the king of Ayodhya and the father of Rama. He has three queens, Kausalya , Kaikeyi and Sumitra , and three other sons: Bharata , Lakshmana and Shatrughna . Kaikeyi, Dasharatha's favourite queen, forces him to make his son Bharata crown prince and send Rama into exile. Dasharatha dies heartbroken after Rama goes into exile.
  • Bharata is the son of Dasharatha and Queen Kaikeyi. When he learns that his mother Kaikeyi had forced Rama into exile and caused Dasharatha to die brokenhearted, he storms out of the palace and goes in search of Rama in the forest. When Rama refuses to return from his exile to assume the throne, Bharata obtains Rama's sandals, and places them on the throne as a gesture that Rama is the true king. Bharata then rules Ayodhya as the regent of Rama for the next fourteen years. He was married to Mandavi.
  • Satrughna is the son of Dasharatha and his third wife Queen Sumitra. He is the youngest brother of Rama and also the twin brother of Lakshmana. He was married to Shrutakirti.
  • Sugriva , a vanara king who helped Rama regain Sita from Ravana. He had an agreement with Rama through which Vaali - Sugriva's brother and king of Kishkindha-would be killed by Rama in exchange for Sugriva's help in finding Sita. Sugriva ultimately ascends the throne of Kishkindha after the slaying of Vaali, and fulfils his promise by putting the Vanara forces at Rama's disposal
  • Indrajit , a son of Ravana who twice defeated Lakshmana in battle, before succumbing to him the third time. An adept of the magical arts, he coupled his supreme fighting skills with various stratagems to inflict heavy losses on the Vanara army before his death.
  • Kumbhakarna , a brother of Ravana, famous for his eating and sleeping. He would sleep for months at a time and would be extremely ravenous upon waking up, consuming anything set before him. His monstrous size and loyalty made him an important part of Ravana's army. During the war, he decimated the Vanara army before Rama cut off his limbs and head.
  • Surpanakha , Ravana's demoness sister who fell in love with Rama, and had the magical power to take any form she wanted.
  • Vibhishana , a younger brother of Ravana. He was against the kidnapping of Sita, and joined the forces of Rama when Ravana refused to return her. His intricate knowledge of Lanka was vital in the war, and he was crowned king after the fall of Ravana.


 
 


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